Smoke-free air policies: past, present and future - indoor air cleaner
The free policy is an important tobacco control intervention.
Just 20 years ago, few communities asked for smoking in the workplace and in the hospitality area.
Today, about 11% of the world's population lives in countries where smoking is required by law. free.
This paper briefly summarizes the important milestones in the history of indoor smoking --
Free policy, the role of scientific research in promoting the adoption of these policies, the smoking framework --
Free policy assessment and industry efforts to disrupt regulations.
Free Policy Center for workplace, restaurant and bar.
In addition, many jurisdictions are now beginning to implement policies in outdoor areas and shared multi-unit housing environments.
The future of smoke
The development of free policies relies on reliable scientific data that document the health risks of secondhand smoke exposure.
Smoking in the next 20 years
The free policy is likely to expand to outdoor and private areas, and changes in the type of tobacco products consumed may also have an impact on the nature and scope of smoke --
Free policy for the future.
Unlike other policies to reduce tobacco use, free policies mainly affect non-smoker;
Therefore, there is a general population
Provide basic support for smokefree spaces.
Today, 28 countries have established a comprehensive policy covering 100% of Africa.
The hotel has a working place, bar and restaurant.
In this article, we define a comprehensive policy ban as a total ban on smoking (
No smoking rooms)
Closed public places and workplaces such as bars, restaurants, public transport, etc.
In 1998, California was the first state in the United States to require all workplaces, bars and restaurants to be smoke-free.
Before that, there was almost no full smoke
There is a free policy anywhere in the world.
This progress in eliminating smoking in public places represents a huge public health achievement and leads to a reduction in the incidence of heart disease and lung cancer.
5-7 scientific studies have demonstrated secondhand smoke (SHS)
It is a serious health hazard.
These findings, often used by tobacco control advocates, play a key role in addressing other arguments put forward by opponents in policy debates and will certainly affect the implementation of future smoke-free policies.
Help build a framework to discuss smoke
There are generally two kinds of policies for free policy: the policy stipulated by laws or regulations and the policy adopted voluntarily.
Free policies can be divided into policies that affect the public sector and policies that affect the private sector.
Before many legislative smoke
The free workplace policy, a large part of the workplace, has adopted some kind of voluntary regulation that limits smoking on the spot.
Legislative policies help simplify rules for consistency, fairness and maximum protection, and narrow the gap in self-spreading response protection caused by voluntary adoption of norms.
So far, policies affecting the private sector, such as families and cars, are almost voluntary.
Policy parameters vary slightly depending on the type of policy being considered.
Please also note that we use the term "policy" in a broad sense to reflect legislative or regulatory policies and voluntary policies that require space to be smoke-free.
In this paper, we aim to briefly summarize sentinel events during smoke evolution
Free policies, current efforts, and the key research areas and challenges we foresee may meet us in the future.
Our description of the history of smoking
Free policy is selective, with special attention to events in the United States.
With regard to the history of epidemiology evidence of the risk of SHSIn in the United States, smoking "anywhere and at any time" was commonplace for most of the 20 th century.
Despite the strong opposition to smoking in public places during this period, smoking bans are rare.
However, since the age of over 1960, scientific research has seen the real danger as a direct result of self-spreading high-temperature synthetic exposure.
In early 1970, American surgeon Jesse L. sterfield announced
Smokers are entitled to breathe clean indoor air at meetings such as the smoking and health inter-agency committee.
Shortly thereafter, the first U. S. Surgeon Report mentioning tobacco smoke exposure to air pollution (
Released on 1972, it said the exposure could be harmful to the health of non-childrensmokers.
Two studies published in 1980 showed that second-hand smoke was significantly exposed to non-
Smokers breathe in tobacco particles, reducing their lung function.
Hirayama and his colleagues in Japan published landmark research using longitudinal data a year later, suggesting that
The wife of a smoker or former smoker
Compared with non-smokers, smokers have a significantly higher chance of developing lung cancer.
No smoking for married womensmoking men.
The tobacco industry has organized millions.
Although Pingshan's newspaper has not been blacked out by the dollar campaign.
Now, 30 years later, the discovery of Pingshan has been confirmed by the epidemiology and biological evidence of many other populations.
13 reviews by the International Agency for Cancer Research and the publications of Alan Brandt and Richard Kruger further highlight the evolution of smoke
Free indoor environment.
1986 report of the director of American surgery and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
It is concluded that self-spread leads to non-lung cancer
Smokers, related to the various breathing conditions of children.
In 1992, the United States Environmental Protection Agency concluded that the United States was widely exposed to self-spreading high-temperature synthesis technology and was a serious and major public health problem.
The report of the general manager of 2006 American surgeon said, "the debate is over", "science is clear", secondhand smoke can cause non-lung cancer and heart disease
Smoking under many other conditions.
Australian National Commission for Health and Medical Research (1997)
Scientific Committee on tobacco and health of the United Kingdom (1998)
And the International Agency for Cancer Research (2002)
A similar conclusion was reached.
First wave of smoke free policy-
The free move to reduce fire risk dates back to the 18 th century in Germany, when smoking restrictions were imposed on towns, forests, barns and bedrooms.
However, with the invention of the sack machine in 1888, smoking has become more and more common, and lobbying activities to support smoking have become more and more common.
Smoking andsmoking groups. 8 14 The Non-
The American smokers protection coalition, launched in 1910, lobbied for smoking.
Free public places such as hotels and restaurants.
However, smoking activists also lobby smokers by petitioning to repeal smoking bans in certain places and advocating smoking areas elsewhere.
14 Public interest groups such as smoking and health action and grass-roots organizations such as anti-smoking and pollution groups play an important role in early smoking
Free indoor air flow, non
Smoking area in public places.
In 1975, Arizona, Connecticut and Minnesota implemented the first policy in the United States to require smoke-free in some public places.
In 1975, Minnesota became the first state in the United States to pass the comprehensive Clean Indoor Air Act, which prohibits smoking in most public workplaces.
Even with a lot of lobbying in the tobacco industry, by 1981, 36 states had imposed some form of smoking restrictions.
Nearly 10 years after the report of the general manager of 1986 surgeons was published, in 1995, California became the first state to require all restaurants to be completely non-smoking, and the policy was extended to bars in 1998.
As of October 2011, nearly 80% of the population in the United States was covered by 100% of the smoke.
Non-free aviation legislation
The hotel has a working place and/or a restaurant and/or bar.
Restrictions on smoking in 21, 3397 municipalities are allowed, with 628 smoking through 100%
Free legislation on restaurants and bars.
22 The rationale for these policies is that the epidemiology literature suggests thatsmokers.
The main argument about smoke
Free legislation provides that workers should not be required to breathe toxic substances as conditions of employment.
No scientific evidence, smoking rate-
The adoption of free policy will certainly be slower. Smoke-
Free-flying aircraft has also become a subject of debate.
Although many participants, including the us nas, anti-smoking and pollution groups, and the non-pollution Association, were involved
From a workplace perspective, flight attendants play an important role in promoting smokingfree policies.
A 1986 report from NAS states that flight attendants are the most affected by smoke on the plane and their annual exposure is estimated to be equivalent to living with backpacksa-day smoker.
23 in view of these high occupational exposures on crowded aircraft, 24 25 people have successfully put forward the argument that smoking is prohibited on flights of 2 hours or less (in 1988)
Smoking is then banned on all domestic flights in the United States.
Through a court settlement against the tobacco company's flight attendant class action, the flight attendant medical research institute was established.
This is the largest foundation at present, which supports research on detection, treatment and prevention of diseases caused by self-spreading response, and the flight attendant medical research institute plays a key role in establishing a smoke science basefree policies.
On 2002, the workers' rights movement provided additional support when the International Occupational Health Commission issued a position paper stating that "employees in the workplace are not allowed to breathe air contaminated with tobacco smoke ", and come to the conclusion that the only way to achieve smoke is
Free workplaces have been achieved through legislation, implementation and enforcement.
26 In addition, personal court cases, such as the case of Australian waitress Marlene Sharp, who developed throat cancer due to her exposure to SHS, also helped to increase the attention of the media, and change the ongoing open debate on specific policies.
27 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)and smoke-
The first WHO global public health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, includes a clause in Article 8 that encourages states to "protect citizens from workplaces, public transport and indoor public places"
28 when writing this paper, 55 countries across the country
Free laws including laws covering 100% of all bars, restaurants and non-bars
Hotel work place.
3 globally, as of 2010, 174 countries had signed the Framework Convention and 87 parties (50%)
A policy has been put in place to protect citizens from self-spreading heat exposure in indoor workplaces.
29 Ireland is one of the pioneers who have fully smoked even before the ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control --
Free legislation (table 2).
New Zealand and Norway implemented these policies shortly after signing the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Since the entry into force of the treaty in February 2005, 24 more countries and all provinces of Canada have imposed a full ban (table 2).
There is growing evidence of the benefits of smoking
The free environment is mainly from developed countries,
Freedom movement is spreading further away.
Uruguay, for example, became the first Latin American country to smoke nationwide.
Free policy of 2006, in part due to evidence from smoke assessment
Free law elsewhere and strong political support from the president of the Republic.
Local activists and organizations, such as the Pan American Health Organization in Latin American countries and the American Heart Foundation, subsequently increased their efforts in other countries.
As of 2011, seven countries in Latin America have banned smoking nationwide. free policies (
The most recent one happened in Argentina in June 2011).
8 30 31 local data to help assess the effectiveness of smoke
Free policy for advocacy and implementation purposes.
For example, the levels of nicotine used in the air in Uruguay and Guatemala show decision makers the levels of exposure that may occur when smoking is allowed and the reasons for smoking
Free policy should be as comprehensive as possible.
I also smoked 30-31 recently.
China has introduced a free environment.
China has a heavy tobacco burden.
Due to government ownership of tobacco companies, related diseases and political restrictions.
32 however, in May 2011, after the adoption of legislation in local cities
The Freedom Act was passed.
33. while the current legislation is not comprehensive and leaves a possible law enforcement gap, it does provide useful lessons for other low-level countries
Income and middle income
Questions raised in smoke
The argument against smoking has always been controversial.
Freedom policy follows a familiar pattern. When smoke-
Free policy for the first time, opponents (
Regular organization of tobacco industry)
It is difficult to believe that such a policy is not supported by the public, to ensure compliance with the law, revenue from the hospitality industry will decline, and ventilation systems will be sufficient to protect the health of customers and employees.
Each of these views puts forward an testable hypothesis for empirical research.
Epidemiology, economists and researchers in other fields have already conducted research to prove that these claims are wrong.
Researchers in developed and developing countries reached the same conclusion: the vast majority of people like to smoke
Free place, smoking required
Free laws are the norm, and implementation issues are relatively mild and brief.
39-43 studies found that business metrics typically continue to be tracked
Existing trends after smoke
44. free policies have been implemented, and the potential benefits of such policies far outweigh the potential costs.
36 in addition, ventilation and filtration systems do not eliminate the health risks associated with workplace exposure to self-propagating high-temperature synthesis technologies.
In conclusion, credible research plays a vital role in policy debate.
The argument proposed to allow smoking areas-
The free policy debate is that employers who smoke can take care of these areas without further damaging their health (
Smoking attendants can clean the smoking area of the restaurant).
Two studies suggest that inhalation of second-hand smoke in adolescents and adult smokers increases the risk of respiratory symptoms.
47 The tobacco industry opposes and blocks smoking-
The free movement tobacco industry recognized at the end of 1970 the danger posed by self-spreading high temperature synthesis technology to the non-tobacco industry
Smokers pose a threat to their ability to survive.
In response, they used a variety of techniques to weaken and delay smoke-
Freedom of policy implementation.
49. the tobacco industry conducted a study under the guise of the global network of scientific advisers to discredit the health impact of the free trade zone and mislead media and health care advocates.
They used false claims that the economy had fallen after the ban, and organized the hotel industry.
Another way to use is to provide an alternative solution for smoke
Free policy known as "easing (Smoking and non-smoking
50 in addition, the tobacco industry operates ventilation standards to support inefficient ventilation systems and lobby for measures that significantly weaken or delay smoke
Freedom of policy implementation.
These strategies implemented at different levels around the world are somewhat effective in delaying or hindering the implementation of smokingfree policies.
From a research point of view, the industry has hired scientists to conduct research to obtain data to question evidence of the harmful effects of self-spreading high-temperature synthesis.
The study is often supervised by lawyers in the tobacco industry.
53-56 a special example of the industry's ability to collaborate between and within companies worldwide is "international environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, or SHS)
The project, organized by Philip Morris in 1988, includes consultants from Asia, Europe and the Americas.
By the beginning of 1990, the program was active in 30 countries, funded by Philip Morris, bat/Brown and Williamson, Renault and Japan Tobacco.
In short, the programme attempts to provide "accuracy" through its consultants "(pro-industry)
Information on smoking regulations in public places and workplaces, indoor air quality and ventilation standards, and scientific statements on self-spreading high temperature synthesis.
These strategies seem to effectively hinder the implementation of smoke.
The implementation of a free policy or policy is invalid.
In Argentina, for example, the president decided in early 1990 to veto an-
Among other provisions, tobacco law provides for the generation of smoke
The free environment is because behind the scenes, the tobacco industry is putting pressure on front-line groups to create an environment that supports the veto.
The veto was largely due to lobbying by one of the advisers of the international ETS advisor program.
41 55 56 Spain and Chile are just two examples of the industry's success in passing smoke --
Free laws with exemptions (
For example, depending on alcohol income or site size)
Therefore, this does not solve the problem of exposure to SHS.
57 58 since 1994, the Spanish tobacco industry has supported an unenforceable voluntary agreement between Madrid's local government and the hospitality industry, which "replaces the draft law that would have banned smoking ".
However, a new comprehensive law was finally implemented in January 2011.
Therefore, despite the large amount of evidence to support the implementation of smoking
Free policy, the fact that