quantification of lifetime accumulated elf-emf exposure from household appliances in the context of a retrospective epidemiological case–control study - small electrical appliances
In Europe, home appliances are the primary source of magnetic field exposure at 50 hz in the chamber.
Some epidemiology studies have reported associations between leukemia risk and personal use of household appliances.
In the "Nordisk German leukemia and lymph Research (NLL)
In Northern Germany (Schleswig-
Holstein and Lower Saxony)
Between 1997 and 2001, the service life of a pre-selected range of appliances (
Electric alarm clock, clothes dryer (i. e.
Move their hands or numbers with a motor)
, Electric blanket and pillow, heated water bed, computer with regular screen, TV and electric sewing machine)
Recorded in a standardized, personal, computerized interview.
Exposure was assessed according to three different levels of accuracy: instruments used, accumulated-
Year, and the average time used every day.
Other issues involve exposure modification factors, including the distance from the screen when watching the TV, the location of the alarm clock on the bed, etc. ).
The EMF of household appliances is quantified as ever
Do not use, hair and net utensils
Service life and cumulative μ t-yearshours.
Flux density is based on measurements of electrical appliances in published literature.
These are used as weight factors to consider different devices
Specific contributions to the whole ElfEMF exposure.
Distribution of results (as quartiles)
For exposure scores, system differences at different levels of accuracy are revealed.
Our analysis shows that the ELF-
The EMF exposure of household appliances should be based on the highest possible accuracy, thus providing considerable challenges in analyzing epidemiology.
In the past few decades, due to exposure to extremely low environments, it may have a negative impact on human health.
Frequency field (ELF-EMF)
It has always been a major problem in Environmental Epidemiology.
Most of the research is for outdoor sources (e. g.
Power transmission lines ,; ; ; ).
For most people, however, indoor sources account for most of the exposure (; ).
In this paper, we discuss the lifetime exposure of the field generated by household appliances based on different levels of accuracy in a large representative control sample.
We focus on electrical equipment that has been proven to provide exposure (
Due to the strength of using patterns or generating fields).
Electric field (EF)
Since the results of the possible impact published are anecdotal and most of them do not show positive associations, no evaluation is made (cf. ; ; ; ; ; ).
A recent assessment ()
Conclusion: epidemiology evidence related to cancer-causing in ELFEMF above 0.
4 u2009 t is quite consistent but still limited due to possible selection bias.
At the same time, epidemiology data on human electric fields are considered inadequate and therefore considered not to be classified as potential carcinogens.
External sources of elves
EMF exposure includes overhead power lines, transformers, ground current and railway lines (cf. ; ; ; ; ).
In addition to the German railway system operating at 16 2/3 hz, all sources generate a 50 hz magnetic field.
Compared to time, the individual dose has produced greater exposure
Household weighted on-site measurement attributed to personal use of electrical appliances (; ).
In Germany, the prevalence of residential areas measured was> 0.
2 t is much smaller than the United States (between 1. 5% and 2.
9% of families; , ).
This is mainly due to the high voltage (
It's 110 V in the United States)
Power supply in Germany.
Also, most of Germany's power lines seem to run under the maximum possible load.
Therefore, due to the overhead power lines in Germany, the total exposure is much smaller than that in the United States ().
Existing data indicate that the total exposure to EMF-
ELF in Germany, 1/3 can be attributed to external sources, 1/3 to electrical appliances, and the last third to defective electrical installations in the home, but these estimates have not yet been confirmed. Dr.
Haok blügmeyer, Ned Sishi Landes fekologi (
Ecological office of Lower Saxony state)
Personal Communications, March 5, 2001).
Therefore, all three major sources exposed to the magnetic field need to be represented by an effective exposure concept.
In this paper, we focus on the field of home appliance generation.
Unlike the remaining sources of exposure information, lifetime device use can be sought in standardized individual interviews.