powering cities with clean energy - indoor air cleaner
Cities are the engine of economic growth.
In 2015, they contributed 85% of global GDP.
Energy is a critical need, whether it's home or livelihood, lighting, cooking, heating, transportation or water supply.
Per capita electricity consumption is often related to the per capita GDP of a city.
While electricity itself does not generate economic growth, a city that cannot popularize electricity may not be able to support GDP growth.
The global urban region is responsible for most of the world's final energy use and associated greenhouse gases (GHG)emissions.
While, on average, per capita greenhouse gas emissions in urban areas of the Global South are still well below those in the developed world, the situation is rapidly changing in terms of absolute emissions.
In 2010, China, developing Asia, India, Africa and Latin America accounted for total urban greenhouse gas emissions in core sectors such as construction, transportation and waste disposal.
The "poor energy" of urban households using solid fuel is the main cause of illness
Health and premature death in most cities in the south of the world.
As far as South Asia is concerned, solid fuel cooking is responsible for 26% of the ambient pm2. 5. 5 pollution.
Climate change is caused by greenhouse gas emissions.
It is in this context that access to cleaner, reliable, affordable and sustainable energy becomes critical to most people in these regions.
While 97% households in South Asia and Latin America have access to electricity, the cleanest source of energy, unreliable and inefficient due to the aging of infrastructure, resulting in power outages and inconvenience for customers.
It is estimated that poor households in these countries use 14% to 22% of their income for energy.
According to international benchmarks, those who spend 10% or more on fuel and electricity are considered "energy shortages ".
Even if current businesses maintain the same pace, these regions in the South are expected to account for 56% of total urban emissions in 2050.
Research by the World Resource Research Institute on energy use in cities in the global South shows that: 1-
Accelerate the transition to clean cooking; 2 -
Promote distributed renewable energy in the urban area, especially the use of solar photovoltaic (PV)system; and 3 -
Improve energy efficiency through measures including new construction and energy building codes
Policy requirements from three aspects
A two-pronged strategy requires replacing solid fuels with electricity, biogas, liquefied petroleum gas or ethanol.
Indoor pollution caused by solid fuel (
Firewood, biomass, coal)
Responsible for 3.
5 million deaths (2010 figures).
It is estimated that 550,000 of deaths during the year could occur in urban areas as 16% of people use solid fuel to cook.
In 2012, 7 million premature deaths worldwide were due to the combined impact of the family and the environment (outdoor)air pollution.
Power access is not just a connection.
Unreliable and inefficient even where people can use electricity can be a serious problem.
More than 15% of South Asia's electricity in 2012 (and low-
Country of overall income)
Lost during transmission and distribution, including through theft.
These losses make it impossible for utilities to provide enough power to meet demand, resulting in a power outage.
The average number of power outages, the number of power outages experienced by South Asian companies in 2013 exceeded 25 per month. Even coal-
Thermal power is a threat to the climate and, in the long run, cannot afford it because most countries rely on coal imports.
The shift to modern fuel will help
Provide services by significantly reducing their exposure to indoor air pollution.
People who use traditional, undischarged wood stoves and undischarged coal stoves estimate that more particulate matter is inhaled by 150 times and 110 times, respectively (PM2. 5)
Each furnace has more people per day than LPG stoves.
Compared with traditional stoves using wood, charcoal, kerosene or open fire, ethanol stoves can reduce indoor air pollution by 84%.
The electric stove is the cleanest cooking solution that can produce pm2. 5 in the room.
5 concentration similar to environmental level.
In many countries, kerosene is subsidized, which may hinder the market penetration of clean fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas. Fossil fuel-
Subsidy reform is also necessary to promote clean cooking.
The report recommends the inclusion of clean urban cooking in the development agenda (
As the objective of the UNDP sustainable development agenda7)
2025 of the year.
It also recommends expanding the funding and use of innovative financing, including consumer finance, carbon finance and results --based payments.
At the same time, efforts should be made to develop fuel-efficient stoves and to invest in port infrastructure for LPG storage and fuel distribution.
Government subsidies could backfire financial pressure.
It noted that India's subsidies for liquefied petroleum gas generated budget and non-budget
Budget expenditure is about $7.
2012 6 billion-
2013, while the second half of the population only received about 8% of the total amount of subsidy transfers.
However, the Indian government has tried to address the issue, including through a campaign launched in 2015 to encourage wealthy consumers to voluntarily abandon subsidies.
In order to improve the reliability of energy, the report emphasizes the role of solar photovoltaic energy, which does not need to rely on distributed energy or power grids.
Even if individuals do not have enough roof space, solar PV is a viable option;
Community owned, community-
Sharing Solar Systems is a promising model in this case.
Such systems can be built in communities or municipalities-
Land or buildings owned.
Individuals are connected to the grid or connected together via a micro-grid.
This will encourage individuals or communities to have energy and mitigate the risk of relying on regional or state grid.
The report highlights the need for the introduction of building energy --
Efficiency source code (BEEC)
A more comfortable and safer building.
It recommends starting with municipal buildings such as schools, hospitals and social housing colonies.
This will reduce the cost of delivering energy per unit, reduce air pollution and improve the health of the respiratory system.
The report notes with satisfaction the progress of energy
Efficiency standards for electrical appliances.
But as far as India is concerned, it considers it necessary to comply with these codes.
Intensive and compliance is often limited by laboratory capabilities or equipment and cannot be tested as required. (
You can contact the author at maqsiraj @ gmail. com)