exposure assessment for respirable particulates associated with household fuel use in rural districts of andhra pradesh, india - indoor air cleaner
Indoor air pollution associated with solid fuel combustion appears to be the main cause of the national burden of disease in India, but there are relatively few studies on quantitative exposure assessment.
This study quantified the daily average concentration of inhaled particulate matter (50% cut-off at 4u2009μm)
Of the 412 rural households selected by stratified random sampling in three districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, time activity data were recorded from 1400 people to reconstruct 24-
H average exposure. The mean 24-
H. The average concentration in gas ranges from 73 to 732 μg/m3
Compared to solid fuel
Make the user separately.
The concentration was significantly correlated with the type of fuel, the type of kitchen, and the amount of fuel. The mean 24-
H. The average exposure range is 80 to 57 μg/m3.
Average of 24-in solid fuel users-
The average exposure of female chefs was the highest, with significant differences with men and children.
Among women, the 15-40 age group has the highest risk (
Most likely to participate in cooking or help with cooking)
In men, the highest risk was in the 65-80 age group (
Most likely indoors).
These data are used to develop a model to predict the number categories of population exposures based on survey information on housing and fuel properties.
This will help to build a database of regional exposures and be able to better estimate health risks.
Indoor air quality and indoor air pollutants are now considered as potential sources of health risks for exposed populations around the world.
It is also increasingly recognized that indoor air quality problems differ dramatically between developed and developing countries.
The most important issue related to indoor air quality in home environments in developing countries is exposure to emissions from fuel combustion, especially for cooking and heating.
Open fire using simple solid fuels, biomass or coal for cooking and heating exposed about 2 billion people (; )
Worldwide, the concentration of particulate matter and gas increases, 10-20 times higher than the typical outdoor concentration in the city ().
While biomass accounts for only 10-15% of total human fuel use, as nearly half of the world's population uses biomass fuel for cooking and heating, globally, indoor exposure may exceed outdoor exposure to some major contaminants.
Use of conventional biomass fuels
Firewood, feces and crop residue
It is common in rural India.
According to the 55 rounds of national sampling survey conducted in 2000-1999, covering 120,000 households, 86% of rural households and 24% of urban households rely on biomass as their main cooking fuel ().
While it is well known that with the increase in per capita income, households often shift to cleaner and more efficient energy systems for household energy needs (i. e.
Move up the "energy ladder ");
However, in the case of localization, the picture is often very complicated.
In many rural areas, households typically adopt "multiple modes" of furnace and energy use, in which households span two or more steps of the energy ladder, fuel substitution is usually incomplete or one-way (; ).
Given the widespread use of solid fuels, the slow and unreliable rate at which "nature" translates into cleaner fuels in many regions, as well as the emerging scientific evidence of health effects related to emissions from solid fuel use, from the perspective of finding ways to improve the health of the population, the problem of indoor air pollution in rural households in developing countries is of great practical significance.
Burning biomass in traditional stovesfire three-
Stone "stoves", or other stoves with low efficiency and less ventilation, often smoke containing a large amount of harmful pollutants (; , )
There are serious health consequences for those exposed, especially for women and young children involved in cooking (
Recent comments can be found in; ).
Recent studies have shown a strong association between biomass fuel combustion and the increased incidence of chronic bronchitis in women and acute respiratory infections in children (; ; ).
Many studies have also recently been conducted in rural Indian villages (; ; ; ).
A recent study described the exposure-response relationship between biomass smoke exposure and acute respiratory infections in rural households in Kenya ().
The assessment of the burden of disease caused by the use of solid fuels in India shows that this figure accounts for 4-6% of the national burden of disease (; ).
These estimates are based only on the risks arising from development
National studies show that as many as 444,000 children under the age of 5 die prematurely, 34,000 women die from chronic respiratory diseases, and 800 cases of lung cancer may be caused by solid fuel use.
Use the same approach for more recent and thorough analysis, but as part of a large who
Global comparative risk assessment of management (CRA)studies ()
, Slightly reducing these estimates, but they are in the same range.
Despite strong epidemiology evidence, there are relatively few studies identifying people in these settings.
In some of the earliest studies to determine the level of indoor air pollutants associated with biomass combustion, the concentration of total suspended particles (TSP)
In the range of 200-30,000 µg/m, carbon monoxide concentrations between 10-500ppm ppm were reported during cooking (; ; ; ; ).
A number of 12-24-hour concentrations of inhaled particulate matter have also been determined, reporting 24-
H representation in the range of 300-3 000 ÷ g/m (; ; ).
Recently, the system, largescale 24-
H measurements of inhaled particulate matter are reported (; ; ; ).
Despite these efforts, the level of indoor pollution (
Estimated Use of inhaled particulate matter as indicator pollutant)
May be quite high compared to health
Based on standards and guidelines, they do not allow us to estimate the distribution of exposure in large areas even in India.
The effects of multiple family variables such as fuel type, Kitchen location and furnace type on actual exposure are still poorly understood, resulting in a rather vague understanding of the exposure-response relationship.
Determination of 24-
H average of various household microenvironments (
Such as kitchen or place of residence)
Along with the detailed time activity record for individual members, so-
The so-called indirect exposure estimation method allows people to reconstruct 24-
H exposure may be the best single indicator for assessing health effects.
Determination of 24-
H-area concentrations of inhaled particulate matter are also allowed to be compared with health
For example, standards-based that can be used for outdoor settings.
So far, few published studies have tried this measurement.
In addition, many of the past Indian studies were conducted in the west or north and did not include a large population in the east and south.
In particular, there are huge climate and socio-cultural differences between the northern and southern regions, including different eating habits and the use of these fuels for heating, which may have an important impact on family contact.
Given the large differences in socio-cultural, housing and climate conditions affecting indoor concentrations across the country, it is necessary to collect this information on a regional basis.
Finally, the relatively reliable evidence provided by outdoor air pollution exposure and health impact studies is the main driver of policy initiatives that control outdoor air pollutants at levels that are unlikely to cause significant health damage, there is a need to expand the evidence base for indoor air pollution in developing countries to promote similar environmental health management initiatives.
For this reason, this study aims to collect better and systematic quantitative information on actual exposure to indoor air pollution levels in rural areas of Andhra Pradesh, Southern India (
Can be used as an indicator of particulate matter)
And determine the key family level determinants of such contact.